Impact of OER in Teacher Education

Denise Marie Cummings-Clay


The purpose of this research study, which employed a quantitative research design, was to determine if there was a difference in the grades achieved by students who were enrolled in an entry-level Foundations of Education course using Open Educational Resources (OER) versus the grades achieved by students who used textbooks in other course sections. The goal was to find out whether OER was of the same or higher quality as textbooks in our minority-serving higher education institution. The outcomes revealed that there was no significant difference in grades for course sections that used OER when compared to course sections that used textbooks. Thus, it can be concluded that OER were as good as the textbook usage. The study was conducted at Hostos Community College (HCC), a two-year college of City University of New York (CUNY). CUNY is comprised of 25 campuses across the five boroughs in New York City, USA.


Open education; open educational resources; distance education; teacher education; early childhood education; technology in the classroom

Full Text:



Ary, D., Jacobs, L.C., & Razavieh, A. (1996). Introduction to research in education (5th edition). Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Bailey, T., Jenkins, D., & Leinbach, T. (2005). What we know about community college low-income and minority student outcomes: Descriptive statistics from national surveys. Community College Research Center Teachers College. Retrieved from

Bliss, T. J., & Smith, M. (2017). A brief history of open educational resources. In R. S. Jhangiani, R. S. & R. Biswas-Diener, R. (Eds.), Open: The Philosophy and Practices that are Revolutionizing Education and Science (pp. 9-27). Ubiquity Press.

Buczynski, J. (2007). Faculty begin to replace textbooks with “freely” accessible online resources. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(4), 169-179.

Dholokai, U. M., King, W. J., & Barniumk, R. (2006). What Makes an Open Education Program Sustainable? The Case of Connexions. Whitepaper commissioned by OECD. Retrieved from

DiSanto, J., Cummings-Clay, D., Mitchell, S., & Ford, M. (2019). Beyond Saving Money: Engaging Multiple Stakeholders is a Key to OER Success. International Journal of Open Educational Resources, 2(1), 227-238..

Farrow, R., Pitt, R., de los Arcos, B., Perryman, L., Weller, M., & McAndrew, P. (2015). Impact of OER use on teaching and learning: Data from OER research hub (2013-2014). British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(5), 972-976.

Fischer, L., Hilton III, J., Robinson, J. & Wiley, D. A. (2015). A multi-institutional study of the impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of post-secondary students. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 27, 159-172.

Hatzipanagos, S. & Gregson, J. (2015). The role of open access and open educational resources: A distance learning perspective. The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 13(2), 96-104. Retrieved from

Hilton, J., Robinson, T. J., Wiley, D., & Ackerman, J. (2014). Cost-savings achieved in two semesters through the adoption of open educational resources. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 15(2).

Hilton III, J. (2016). Open educational resources and college textbook choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions. Education Technology Research and Development, 64, 573-590.

Jakobsen, K. V., & Knetemann, M. (2017). Putting structure to flipped classrooms using team-based learning. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1). Retrieved from

Johansen, J., & Wiley, D. (2011). A sustainable model for open courseware development. Educational Technology Research & Development, 59(3), 369-382.

Knowles, M. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Follett Publishing Company.

Knowles, M., & Associates (1984). Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lyons, C., & Hendrix, D. (2014). Textbook affordability: Is there a role for the library? The Serials Librarian, 66(1-4), 262-267.

Provasnik, S., & Planty, M. (2008). Community colleges: Special supplement to the condition of education 2008. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-033. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from

Ross-Gordon, J. (2003). Adult learners in the classroom. New Directions for Student Services, 2003(102), 43-52.

Silver, L. S., Stevens, R. E., Clow, K.E. (2012). Marketing professors’ perspectives on the cost of college textbooks: a pilot study. Journal of Education for Business, 87(1), 1-6.

Wikipedia (2019). Retrieved from

Wiley, D. (2006). On the sustainability of open educational resource initiatives in higher education. Whitepaper commissioned by OECD. Retrieved from

Wiley, D., Williams, L., DeMarte, D., & Hilton, J. (2016). The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO model for sustaining OER adoption. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 23(41). Retrieved from

William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (2013). Open educational resources. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.