Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

Melike Aydemir, Engin Kursun, Selcuk Karaman

Abstract


Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.


Keywords


Synchronous communication, virtual classrooms, question-answer activity, synchronous webbased course, videoconferencing

Full Text:

PDF

References


Almeida, P. A. (2012). Can I ask a question? The importance of classroom questioning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31(2012), 634-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.116

Bell, L. I. (2002). Strategies that close the gap. Educational Leadership, 60(4), 32-34.

Bernstein, S. P. (2013). A distance education classroom designed to facilitate synchronous learner and instructor interactions (Doctoral dissertation). University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA.

Brade, I. (2007). Videoconferencing in learning and teaching. A literature review. Monash University. Retrieved from http://webct.med.monash.edu.au/videoconf/docs/vc-project-lit-review.pdf

Bond, N. (2007). Questioning strategies that minimize classroom management problems. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 44(1), 18-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2007.10516486

Canfield, J., & H. C. Wells. (1994). One hundred ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Çepni, S., Bayrakçeken, S., Yılmaz, A., Yücel, C., Semerci, Ç., Köse, E., Sezgin, F., Demircioğlu, G., & Gündoğdu, K. (2012). Ölçme ve değerlendirme. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Conderman, G., & Morin, J. (2002). Successful instruction for all students. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 38(4), 170-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00228958.2002.10516368

De Freitas, S., & Neumann, T. (2009). Pedagogic strategies supporting the use of synchronous audiographic conferencing: A review of the literature. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(6), 980-988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00887.x

de Rivera, C., Girolametto, L., Greenberg, J., & Weitzman, E. (2005). Children’s responses to educators’ questions in day care play groups. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14(1), 14-26.

Ellis, M. V. (1999). Repeated measures designs. The Counseling Psychologist, 27, 552-578.

Engle, J. P., & Parent-Stevens, L. (1999). Developing web-based lecture notes and conferencing for an on campus course in nonprescription drugs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 63(4), 421-426. Retrieved from http://archive.ajpe.org/legacy/pdfs/aj630410.pdf

Goossen, L. H. (2002). Classroom questioning strategies as indicators of inquiry based science instruction (Doctoral dissertation). Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Guichon, N. (2010). Preparatory study for the design of a desktop videoconferencing platform for synchronous language teaching. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 23(2), 169-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09588221003666255

Guilford, J. P. (1956). The structure of intellect. Psychological Bulletin, 53(4), 267-293.

Guth, S., & Petrucco, C. (2008). Social software and language acquisition. In de Cássia Veiga Marriott, R., & Lupion Torres, P. (eds.), Handbook of Research on E-Learning Methodologies for Language Acquisition (pp. 424-442). UK, Idea Group Inc. http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59904-994-6.ch026

Hargreaves, D. H. (1984). Teachers’ questions: Open, closed and half-open. Educational Research, 26(1), 46-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188840260108

Huck, S. W., & Cormier, W. H. (1996). Reading statistics and research (2nd ed.). New York: Harper Collins.

Hrastinski, S., Keller, C. & Carlsson, S. A. (2010). Design exemplars for synchronous e-learning: A design theory Approach. Computers & Education, 55(2), 652-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.025

Jelly, S. (2001). Helping children raise questions and answering them. In W. Harlen (Ed.), Primary science: Taking the plunge (2nd ed.) (pp. 36-47). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Jones, T. C. (1995). An in-depth analysis of presentation styles, information technology usage, questions strategies, and teacher and student evaluations in interactive telecourses (Doctoral dissertation). The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Karaman, S., Aydemir M., Küçük, S., & Yildirim, G. (2013). Virtual classroom participants’ views for effective synchronous education process. The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 14(1), 290-301. Retrieved from http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/makale_goster.php?id=860

Kato, M.P., White, R.W., Teevan, J, & Dumais, S.T. (2013). Clarifications and question specificity in synchronous social Q&A. CHI Extended Abstracts, 2013, 913-918.

Kidd R.S., & Stamatakis, M. K. (2006). Comparison of students' performance in and satisfaction with a clinical pharmacokinetics course delivered live and by Interactive videoconferencing. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(1), 10. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1636907/

Kim, C. (2012). The role of affective and motivational factors in designing personalized learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 60, 563-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-012-9253-6

Larkin, C.A. (2007). Instructional techniques for online interaction in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). Texas A&M University - Commerce, United States.

Lee, Y., & Choi, J. (2011). A review of online course dropout research: Implications for practice and future research. Education Technology and Research Development, 59, 593-618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11423-010-9177-y

Lee, Y., Kinzie, M.B., & Whittaker, J.V. (2012). Impact of online support for teachers' open-ended questioning in pre-k science activities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(4), 568-577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2012.01.002

Leidner, D. E., & Jarvenpaa, S. L. (1995). The use of information technology to enhance management school education: a theoretical view. MIS Quarterly, 19(3), 265-291.

Leng, T. H. (2006). Motivation and task difficulty: A SOLO experience with adult learners. Jurnal Pendidikan, 31(2006), 71-81.

Levin, J., & Nolan, F. (2004). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model. Boston: Pearson.

Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of adult learning. Retrieved from http://www.lindenwood.edu/education/andragogy/andragogy/2011/Lieb_1991.pdf

Maloney, N. R. (2012). How teachers connect beliefs with implementation of questioning techniques (Doctoral dissertation). Walden University, Washington, USA.

Marjanovic, O. (1999). Learning and teaching in a synchronous collaborative environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 15(2), 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2729.1999.152085.x

Martin, F., & Parker, M. A. (2014). Use of synchronous virtual classrooms: Why, who, and how? MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 192-210. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol10no2/martin_0614.pdf

McAlister, S., Ravenscroft, A., & Scanlon, E. (2004). Combining interaction and context design to support collaborative argumentation using a tool for synchronous CMC. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(3), 194-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2729.2004.00086.x

McBrien, J. L., Jones, P., & Cheng, R. (2009). Virtual spaces: Employing a synchronous online classroom to facilitate student engagement in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), 1-17. Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/605/1264

Minke, A. (1997). Conducting Repeated Measures Analyses: Experimental Design Considerations. Retrieved February 16, 2015, from http://ericae.net/ft/tamu/Rm.htm

Moore, M. & Quintanilla, B. (2013). The relationship between student satisfaction and attendance at synchronous class meetings in online graduate courses. UNT COI 2013 Research Exchange Conference Proceedings, 67-70.

Murphy, E., Rodriguez-Manzanares, M. A, & Barbour, M. (2011). Asynchronous and synchronous online teaching: Perspectives of Canadian high school distance education teachers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), 583-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01112.x

Ng, K. C. (2007). Replacing face-to-face tutorials by synchronous online technologies: Challenges and pedagogical implications. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 8(1). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/335/764

Repman, J., Zinskie, C., & Carlson, R.D. (2005). Effective use of CMC tools in interactive online learning. Computers in the Schools: Interdisciplinary Journal of Practice, Theory, and Applied Research, 22(1-2), 57-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J025v22n01_06

Rogers, V. M. (1972). Modifying questioning strategies of teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 23(1), 58.-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248717202300113

Schullo, S., Hilbelink, A., Venable, M., & Barron, A. (2007). Selecting a virtual classroom system: Elluminate Live Vs Macromedia Breeze (Adobe Connect Professional). Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 3(4), 331-345. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/documents/hilbelink.pdf

Sobell, L., & Sobell, M. (2008). Motivational interviewing strategies and techniques: Rationales and examples. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/gsc/forms/mi_rationale_techniques.pdf

Sun, Z. (2012). An empirical study on new teacher-student relationship and questioning strategies in ESL classroom. English Language Teaching, 5(7), 175-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n7p175

Tabak, F., & Rampal, R. (2014). Synchronous e-learning: Reflections and design considerations. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 10(4), 80-92. Retrieved from http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/include/getdoc.php?id=6179&article=1793&mode=pdf

Tekin, H. (1991). Eğitimde ölçme ve değerlendirme. Yargı yayınevi: Ankara.

Thoms, K. J. (2001). They’re not just big kids: Motivating adult learners. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED463720.pdf

Tipton, P. H., Pulliam, M., Allen, S. H., & Sherwood, C. (2011). Lessons learned: Pointers for successfully teaching via videoconferencing. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6(1), 27-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2010.07.001

Watkins, R. (2005). 75 e-learning activities: Making online learning interactive. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

West, E., & Jones, P. (2007). A framework for planning technology used in teacher education programs that serve rural communities. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 26(4), 3-15.

Wilen, W. W., & Clegg, A. A. (1986). Effective questions and questioning: A research review. Theory and Research in Social Education, 14(2), 153-161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00933104.1986.10505518

Wragg, E. C., & Brown, G. (2001). Questioning in the primary school. London: Routledge Falmer.

Zou, Y. (2004). Questioning strategies based on the affective teacher-student relationship (Master thesis). Jiangxi Normal University, China.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.8.1.226

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.